Early Middle Ages and Beyond

early Middle Ages and Beyond

In the final analysis, only another ecumenical council could introduce such an alteration. This Slavic dialect became the basis of Old Church Slavonic which later evolved into Church Slavonic which is the common liturgical language still used by the Russian Orthodox Church and other Slavic Orthodox Christians. Religious rights under the Ottoman Empire The new Ottoman government that arose from the ashes of Byzantine civilization was neither primitive nor barbaric. As her name implies, Hrotsvitha lived at Gandersheim, More Spotlight on Hrotsvitha of Gandersheim. The main targets were the Cathars and the Waldensians in southern France, northern Spain and northern Italy. The period also saw the development of Carolingian minuscule, the ancestor of modern lower-case script, and the standardisation of Latin which had hitherto become varied and irregular (see Medieval Latin ). 13 Some of the disciples returned to Bulgaria where they were welcomed by the Bulgarian Tsar Boris I who viewed the Slavonic liturgy as a way to counteract Greek influence in the country. Its administration continued to function. Communication between the Greek East and Latin West by the 600s had become dangerous and practically ceased. The failure of the East to send aid resulted in the popes themselves feeding the city with grain from papal estates, negotiating treaties, paying protection money to Lombard warlords, and, failing that, hiring soldiers to defend the city. The Hagia Sophia and the Parthenon, which had been Christian churches for nearly a millennium were, admittedly, converted into mosques, yet countless other churches, both in Constantinople and elsewhere, remained in Christian hands.

On the other hand, wealthy Italian families often secured episcopal offices, including the papacy, for their own members, some of whom were known for immorality, such as Alexander VI and Sixtus. The first Cistercian abbey was founded in 1098, at Cteaux Abbey. It began as a dispute in the 11th century between the Holy Roman Emperor Henry IV, and Pope Gregory VII concerning who would appoint bishops ( investiture ). Bishops collected revenues from estates attached to their bishopric. The most striking feature in the reform was the return to manual labour, and especially to field-work. In 2004, Pope John Paul II extended a formal apology for the sacking of Constantinople in 1204; the apology was formally accepted by Patriarch Bartholomew of Constantinople. The largely Christian Gallo-Roman inhabitants of Gaul (modern France) were overrun by Germanic Franks in the early 5th century.

The Unfoldment of the Allmuseri in Middle Passage
The Middle Passage